50000 Vdc Power Supply
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These supplies generally produce very low currents and are often programmable using a standard serial interface. Some adjustable supplies included in X-ray equipment can produce up to 50, VDC.
One of our editors will review your suggestion and make changes if warranted. Note that depending on the number of suggestions we receive, this can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days. Thank you for helping to improve wiseGEEK! On This Page. Watch the Did-You-Know slideshow. Follow wiseGEEK. Did You Know? Striped maple trees can change sex from year to year; the female trees have a much higher mortality rate. This Day in History. Roosevelt urged Congress to repeal the Neutrality Acts. You might also Like. What Is an Electron Multiplier? What is a Regulated Power Supply? Both Class BF and Class B devices leak amounts of electricity easily capable of causing microshock from their patient circuits and must never be connected to any patient with an intracardiac conductor.
Class CF devices have sufficietnly high input impedance as to not allow any more than 50uA to flow through the patient under worst case conditions eg V applied to the patient. Devices with cardiac protected patient circuits are the only type to be used on the patient when an intracardiac conductor is present. Great care must be taken to ensure that the intracardiac conductor never contacts earth or the chassis of any nearby electronic device.
Note that should the patient be connected to V via a skin connected patient circuit, the patient will suffer:. Outputs on modern monopolar machines are 'floating'. The 'ground' pad does not actually connect to ground, the RF energy exits the handpiece seeking only to return to the pad.
The greatest danger is if the pad isn't connected; the current will attempt to dissipate via any capacitative pathways back to the source, causing electrical burns. Normally the pad provides a very low resistance pathway back to the source. Without it, burns can occur in unpredictable places. Modern monopolar ground pads have two plates and the resistance between those two pads is continuously monitored by means of a smaller AC test signal, which confirms that the plate is working.
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The pad should not be placed over bony prominences, hair, pressure points, etc. Burns may arise from accidental activation of the diathermy system when someone presses the pedal unintentionally. Arcing from diathermy with ingite alcohol skin prep vapour in air , and very easily ignite alcohol in oxygen. In pure oxygen environments fat can ignite as can drapes close to the diathermy site.
The greatest danger is when excess alcohol prep pools at the edges of the patient, where vapours may come up around the operative site. This is amplified many times when either supplemental oxygen is administered via hudson mask as in operations under local anaesthetic around the face or where there is a small leak around the endotracheal tube or LMA and a high oxygen level exists in the circuit.
Alcohol fueled fires are nearly invisible, the first sign is usually glowing embers on the drapes. Where the patient has conductive implants, eg metal hip replacements, current may flow preferentially down the implant, causing internal heating.
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The return pad should ideally be placed on the opposite side or between the diathermy site and the metalwork. Although it is suggested that patients remove piercings and other small items of metal jewellery, this doesn't seem to make much sense, especially if covered, since they are unlikely make any significant difference to conduction. After all, surgeons use all kinds of clips and retractors without difficulty. Diathermy machines can inhibit pacemakers. A means to revert to fixed rate eg an external magnet should be available. The pad should be placed so that diathermy current does not traverse the path of the pacing wire.
If that is impossible, bipolar diathermy should be used. Smoke plumes can contain DNA, carcinogenic cells etc but to date there is no proven transfer of any disease via a diathermy smoke plume. Diathermy results in devascularised tissue and excessive use can contribute to wound dehiscence and infection.
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Arcing causes intense local heat, dehydrating the cut surface, and once dehydrated that region conducts less well than 'moist' areas eg bleeding points. Heating then progressively shifts to those bleeding points. Cutting mode utilises higher power continuous sine waves and finer tips to vaporise water in tissue, tearing it apart and burning the remaining protein and fat. The plasma layer is conductive. Energy is focused on tissues that have not yet been cut. Coag mode uses less power to heat tissue in the local area without arcing, causing tissue coagulation at some depth.
Fulguration mode involves cutting by arc in the kV range, sometimes with an argon gas to prevent fires eg the argon beam coagulator. This is good for superficial burning of larger areas of tissue where the depth of burn should be controlled. Volt-- Unit of electrical pressure potential difference. Emf electromotive force is volts. Ohm-- Unit of electrical resistance. Is equal to the resistance of a 1 meter column of mercury, 1 mm cross-sectional area at 0 deg C. Or one volt per ampere. Farad-- Unit of capacity of a capacitor. Will take a charge of one coulomb per one volt of emf.
Henry-- Unit of inductance. A coil has an inductance of 1 h when a current changing at the rate of one ampere per second induces a back emf of one volt. Electroscope-- A device for detecting electric charge. It has a pair of metal foil leaves that are pushed apart by electric force fields. Coulomb's Law-- The force between charges varies directly as the product of the charges and inversely as square of the distance between the charges.
Ohm's Law-- The current amps is directly proportional to the emf volts and inversely proportional the resistance ohms. Solenoid-- A coil of wire for concentrating magnetic field. With a moveable permeable core, it can operate mechanical devices. Capacitor-- A device for storing electric charges.
Two conductors separated by an insulator the dielectric. Inductive reactance-- The opposition to current flow caused by the self-induction of opposing currents in coils.
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Coils oppose high frequency AC and have low reactance to DC. Lenz' Law-- An induced current has such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the field which induced it. Capacitive reactance-- The opposition to current flow caused by a capacitor. Capacitors are open circuits to DC. High frequency AC appears to pass through a capacitor. Impedance-- The combined opposition to current flow due to resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance. It is a vector sum wherein the inductive reactance acts upward, the capacitive reactance acts downward, and the resistance acts sideways.
Angle of lag or lead-- The angle caused by the impedance vector measured from the resistance vector. It shows the phase relationship in an AC circuit. Resonance-- The resonant frequency of an AC circuit is the frequency at which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance. At this frequency the two reactances cancel and the circuit acts as though is contains resistance only. This enables us to select certain frequencies. Slip rings-- The rotating connection on the shaft of a generator that contacts the brushes to remove the current from the rotor. Series circuit-- Components connected such that tall of the current must pass through each component.
D'Arsenval meter movement-- The mechanism of springs, magnets and coils that operate electric meters. Voltmeter-- A high resistance galvanometer for measuring emf. It's connected in parallel with the load. Ammeter-- A low resistance galvanometer for measuring current flow. It's connected in series with the load. Watt hour meter-- A recording meter for keeping a record of electrical energy consumed. Found on houses.
source Potentiometer-- A variable resistor that can reverse current direction as well as very the resistance. Electrolysis-- The decomposition of substances by passing an electric current through their melts or solutions. Magnetic domains-- Groups of atoms adding their magnetic fields. Lining up the domains magnetizes a piece of metal. Last updated Monday, October 23, Comments?
There are three wires: an active wire at AC potential difference from ground, a 'neutral' wire for returning current to go back to a common ground point typically a tap or grounded copper pipe a 'ground' wire for safety puposes, connected to any metal chassis around appliances ,etc Electrons from the active wire are ground-seeking - they will run through whatever path they find easiest to get to ground. Type of patient circuit. Used for protecting sliding doors and windows where space is limited Contact reed switch is S Used for protecting sliding doors and windows where space is limited Contact reed switch is SPS Features: Regulated 2.
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